Book 10 Proposition 60
Τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ἐκ δύο ὀνομάτων παρὰ ῥητὴν παραβαλλόμενον πλάτος ποιεῖ τὴν ἐκ δύο ὀνομάτων πρώτην. Ἔστω ἐκ δύο ὀνομάτων ἡ ΑΒ διῃρημένη εἰς τὰ ὀνόματα κατὰ τὸ Γ, ὥστε τὸ μεῖζον ὄνομα εἶναι τὸ ΑΓ, καὶ ἐκκείσθω ῥητὴ ἡ ΔΕ, καὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ ἴσον παρὰ τὴν ΔΕ παραβεβλήσθω τὸ ΔΕΖΗ πλάτος ποιοῦν τὴν ΔΗ: λέγω, ὅτι ἡ ΔΗ ἐκ δύο ὀνομάτων ἐστὶ πρώτη. Παραβεβλήσθω γὰρ παρὰ τὴν ΔΕ τῷ μὲν ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΓ ἴσον τὸ ΔΘ, τῷ δὲ ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΓ ἴσον τὸ ΚΛ: λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΓ, ΓΒ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ΜΖ. τετμήσθω ἡ ΜΗ δίχα κατὰ τὸ Ν, καὶ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΝΞ [ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ΜΛ, ΗΖ]. ἑκάτερον ἄρα τῶν ΜΞ, ΝΖ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἅπαξ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΓΒ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἐκ δύο ὀνομάτων ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΒ διῃρημένη εἰς τὰ ὀνόματα κατὰ τὸ Γ, αἱ ΑΓ, ΓΒ ἄρα ῥηταί εἰσι δυνάμει μόνον σύμμετροι: τὰ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ, ΓΒ ῥητά ἐστι καὶ σύμμετρα ἀλλήλοις: ὥστε καὶ τὸ συγκείμενον ἐκ τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ, ΓΒ [σύμμετρόν ἐστι τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ, ΓΒ: ῥητὸν ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ συγκείμενον ἐκ τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ, ΓΒ]. καί ἐστιν ἴσον τῷ ΔΛ: ῥητὸν ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΔΛ. καὶ παρὰ ῥητὴν τὴν ΔΕ παράκειται: ῥητὴ ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΔΜ καὶ σύμμετρος τῇ ΔΕ μήκει. πάλιν, ἐπεὶ αἱ ΑΓ, ΓΒ ῥηταί εἰσι δυνάμει μόνον σύμμετροι, μέσον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΓ, ΓΒ, τουτέστι τὸ ΜΖ. καὶ παρὰ ῥητὴν τὴν ΜΛ παράκειται: ῥητὴ ἄρα καὶ ἡ ΜΗ ἐστι καὶ ἀσύμμετρος τῇ ΜΛ, τουτέστι τῇ ΔΕ, μήκει. ἔστι δὲ καὶ ἡ ΜΔ ῥητὴ καὶ τῇ ΔΕ μήκει σύμμετρος: ἀσύμμετρος ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΔΜ τῇ ΜΗ μήκει. καί εἰσι ῥηταί: αἱ ΔΜ, ΜΗ ἄρα ῥηταί εἰσι δυνάμει μόνον σύμμετροι: ἐκ δύο ἄρα ὀνομάτων ἐστὶν ἡ ΔΗ. Δεικτέον δή, ὅτι καὶ πρώτη. Ἐπεὶ τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ, ΓΒ μέσον ἀνάλογόν ἐστι τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΓΒ, καὶ τῶν ΔΘ, ΚΛ ἄρα μέσον ἀνάλογόν ἐστι τὸ ΜΞ. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ ΔΘ πρὸς τὸ ΜΞ, οὕτως τὸ ΜΞ πρὸς τὸ ΚΛ, τουτέστιν ὡς ἡ ΔΚ πρὸς τὴν ΜΝ, ἡ ΜΝ πρὸς τὴν ΜΚ: τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΔΚ, ΚΜ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΜΝ. καὶ ἐπεὶ σύμμετρόν ἐστι τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΓ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΒ, σύμμετρόν ἐστι καὶ τὸ ΔΘ τῷ ΚΛ: ὥστε καὶ ἡ ΔΚ τῇ ΚΜ σύμμετρός ἐστιν. καὶ ἐπεὶ μείζονά ἐστι τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ, ΓΒ τοῦ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΓ, ΓΒ, μεῖζον ἄρα καὶ τὸ ΔΛ τοῦ ΜΖ: ὥστε καὶ ἡ ΔΜ τῆς ΜΗ μείζων ἐστίν. καί ἐστιν ἴσον τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΔΚ, ΚΜ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΜΝ, τουτέστι τῷ τετάρτῳ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΜΗ, καὶ σύμμετρος ἡ ΔΚ τῇ ΚΜ. ἐὰν δὲ ὦσι δύο εὐθεῖαι ἄνισοι, τῷ δὲ τετάρτῳ μέρει τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ἐλάσσονος ἴσον παρὰ τὴν μείζονα παραβληθῇ ἐλλεῖπον εἴδει τετραγώνῳ καὶ εἰς σύμμετρα αὐτὴν διαιρῇ, ἡ μείζων τῆς ἐλάσσονος μεῖζον δύναται τῷ ἀπὸ συμμέτρου ἑαυτῇ: ἡ ΔΜ ἄρα τῆς ΜΗ μεῖζον δύναται τῷ ἀπὸ συμμέτρου ἑαυτῇ. καί εἰσι ῥηταὶ αἱ ΔΜ, ΜΗ, καὶ ἡ ΔΜ μεῖζον ὄνομα σύμμετρός ἐστι τῇ ἐκκειμένῃ ῥητῇ τῇ ΔΕ μήκει. Ἡ ΔΗ ἄρα ἐκ δύο ὀνομάτων ἐστὶ πρώτη: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.
The square on the binomial straight line applied to a rational straight line produces as breadth the first binomial. Let AB be a binomial straight line divided into its terms at C, so that AC is the greater term; let a rational straight line DE be set out, and let DEFG equal to the square on AB be applied to DE producing DG as its breadth; I say that DG is a first binomial straight line. For let there be applied to DE the rectangle DH equal to the square on AC, and KL equal to the square on BC; therefore the remainder, twice the rectangle AC, CB, is equal to MF. Let MG be bisected at N, and let NO be drawn parallel [to ML or GF]. Therefore each of the rectangles MO, NF is equal to once the rectangle AC, CB. Now, since AB is a binomial divided into its terms at C, therefore AC, CB are rational straight lines commensurable in square only; [X. 36] therefore the squares on AC, CB are rational and commensurable with one another, so that the sum of the squares on AC, CB is also rational. [X. 15] And it is equal to DL; therefore DL is rational. And it is applied to the rational straight line DE; therefore DM is rational and commensurable in length with DE. [X. 20] Again, since AC, CB are rational straight lines commensurable in square only, therefore twice the rectangle AC, CB, that is MF, is medial. [X. 21] And it is applied to the rational straight line ML; therefore MG is also rational and incommensurable in length with ML, that is, DE. [X. 22] But MD is also rational and is commensurable in length with DE; therefore DM is incommensurable in length with MG. [X. 13] And they are rational; therefore DM, MG are rational straight lines commensurable in square only; therefore DG is binomial. [X. 36] It is next to be proved that it is also a first binomial straight line. Since the rectangle AC, CB is a mean proportional between the squares on AC, CB, [cf. Lemma after X. 53] therefore MO is also a mean proportional between DH, KL. Therefore, as DH is to MO, so is MO to KL, that is, as DK is to MN, so is MN to MK; [VI. 1] therefore the rectangle DK, KM is equal to the square on MN. [VI. 17] And, since the square on AC is commensurable with the square on CB, DH is also commensurable with KL, so that DK is also commensurable with KM. [VI. 1, X. 11] And, since the squares on AC, CB are greater than twice the rectangle AC, CB, [Lemma] therefore DL is also greater than MF, so that DM is also greater than MG. [VI. 1] And the rectangle DK, KM is equal to the square on MN, that is, to the fourth part of the square on MG, and DK is commensurable with KM. But, if there be two unequal straight lines, and to the greater there be applied a parallelogram equal to the fourth part of the square on the less and deficient by a square figure, and if it divide it into commensurable parts, the square on the greater is greater than the square on the less by the square on a straight line commensurable with the greater; [X. 17] therefore the square on DM is greater than the square on MG by the square on a straight line commensurable with DM. And DM, MG are rational, and DM, which is the greater term, is commensurable in length with the rational straight line DE set out.