# Book 10 Proposition 59

Ἐὰν χωρίον περιέχηται ὑπὸ ῥητῆς καὶ τῆς ἐκ δύο ὀνομάτων ἕκτης, ἡ τὸ χωρίον δυναμένη ἄλογός ἐστιν ἡ καλουμένη δύο μέσα δυναμένη. Χωρίον γὰρ τὸ ΑΒΓΔ περιεχέσθω ὑπὸ ῥητῆς τῆς ΑΒ καὶ τῆς ἐκ δύο ὀνομάτων ἕκτης τῆς ΑΔ διῃρημένης εἰς τὰ ὀνόματα κατὰ τὸ Ε, ὥστε τὸ μεῖζον ὄνομα εἶναι τὸ ΑΕ: λέγω, ὅτι ἡ τὸ ΑΓ δυναμένη ἡ δύο μέσα δυναμένη ἐστίν. Κατεσκευάσθω [γὰρ] τὰ αὐτὰ τοῖς προδεδειγμένοις. φανερὸν δή, ὅτι [ἡ] τὸ ΑΓ δυναμένη ἐστὶν ἡ ΜΞ, καὶ ὅτι ἀσύμμετρός ἐστι ἡ ΜΝ τῇ ΝΞ δυνάμει. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἀσύμμετρός ἐστιν ἡ ΕΑ τῇ ΑΒ μήκει, αἱ ΕΑ, ΑΒ ἄρα ῥηταί εἰσι δυνάμει μόνον σύμμετροι: μέσον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΚ, τουτέστι τὸ συγκείμενον ἐκ τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΜΝ, ΝΞ. πάλιν, ἐπεὶ ἀσύμμετρός ἐστιν ἡ ΕΔ τῇ ΑΒ μήκει, ἀσύμμετρος ἄρα ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ ΖΕ τῇ ΕΚ: αἱ ΖΕ, ΕΚ ἄρα ῥηταί εἰσι δυνάμει μόνον σύμμετροι: μέσον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΕΛ, τουτέστι τὸ ΜΡ, τουτέστι τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΜΝΞ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἀσύμμετρος ἡ ΑΕ τῇ ΕΖ, καὶ τὸ ΑΚ τῷ ΕΛ ἀσύμμετρόν ἐστιν. ἀλλὰ τὸ μὲν ΑΚ ἐστι τὸ συγκείμενον ἐκ τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΜΝ, ΝΞ, τὸ δὲ ΕΛ ἐστι τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΜΝΞ: ἀσύμμετρον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ συγκείμενον ἐκ τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΜΝΞ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν ΜΝΞ. καί ἐστι μέσον ἑκάτερον αὐτῶν, καὶ αἱ ΜΝ, ΝΞ δυνάμει εἰσὶν ἀσύμμετροι. Ἡ ΜΞ ἄρα δύο μέσα δυναμένη ἐστὶ καὶ δύναται τὸ ΑΓ: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.

[Λῆμμα. Ἐὰν εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ τμηθῇ εἰς ἄνισα, τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ἀνίσων τετράγωνα μείζονά ἐστι τοῦ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ἀνίσων περιεχομένου ὀρθογωνίου. Ἔστω εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΒ καὶ τετμήσθω εἰς ἄνισα κατὰ τὸ Γ, καὶ ἔστω μείζων ἡ ΑΓ: λέγω, ὅτι τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ, ΓΒ μείζονά ἐστι τοῦ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΓ, ΓΒ. Τετμήσθω γὰρ ἡ ΑΒ δίχα κατὰ τὸ Δ. ἐπεὶ οὖν εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ τέτμηται εἰς μὲν ἴσα κατὰ τὸ Δ, εἰς δὲ ἄνισα κατὰ τὸ Γ, τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΓ, ΓΒ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ ΓΔ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ ΑΔ: ὥστε τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΓ, ΓΒ ἔλαττόν ἐστι τοῦ ἀπὸ ΑΔ: τὸ ἄρα δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΓ, ΓΒ ἔλαττον ἢ διπλάσιόν ἐστι τοῦ ἀπὸ ΑΔ. ἀλλὰ τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ, ΓΒ διπλάσιά [ἐστι] τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΔ, ΔΓ: τὰ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ, ΓΒ μείζονά ἐστι τοῦ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΓ, ΓΒ: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.]

If an area be contained by a rational straight line and the sixth binomial, the “side” of the area is the irrational straight line called the side of the sum of two medial areas. For let the area ABCD be contained by the rational straight line AB and the sixth binomial AD, divided into its terms at E, so that AE is the greater term; I say that the “side” of AC is the side of the sum of two medial areas. Let the same construction be made as before shown. It is then manifest that MO is the “side” of AC, and that MN is incommensurable in square with NO. Now, since EA is incommensurable in length with AB, therefore EA, AB are rational straight lines commensurable in square only; therefore AK, that is, the sum of the squares on MN, NO, is medial. [X. 21] Again, since ED is incommensurable in length with AB, therefore FE is also incommensurable with EK; [X. 13] therefore FE, EK are rational straight lines commensurable in square only; therefore EL, that is, MR, that is, the rectangle MN, NO, is medial. [X. 21] And, since AE is incommensurable with EF, AK is also incommensurable with EL. [VI. 1, X. 11] But AK is the sum of the squares on MN, NO, and EL is the rectangle MN, NO; therefore the sum of the squares on MN, NO is incommensurable with the rectangle MN, NO. And each of them is medial, and MN, NO are incommensurable in square. Therefore MO is the side of the sum of two medial areas [X. 41], and is the “side” of AC. Q. E. D.

[Lemma. If a straight line be cut into unequal parts, the squares on the unequal parts are greater than twice the rectangle contained by the unequal parts. Let AB be a straight line, and let it be cut into unequal parts at C, and let AC be the greater; I say that the squares on AC, CB are greater than twice the rectangle AC, CB. For let AB be bisected at D. Since then a straight line has been cut into equal parts at D, and into unequal parts at C, therefore the rectangle AC, CB together with the square on CD is equal to the square on AD, [II. 5] so that the rectangle AC, CB is less than double of the square on AD; therefore twice the rectangle AC, CB is less than double of the square on AD. But the squares on AC, CB are double of the squares on AD, DC; therefore teh squares on AC, CB are greater than twice the rectangle AC, CB.]