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Book 10 Proposition 43

207v-208r

207v-208r

Ἡ ἐκ δύο μέσων πρώτη καθ' ἓν μόνον σημεῖον διαιρεῖται. Ἔστω ἐκ δύο μέσων πρώτη ἡ ΑΒ διῃρημένη κατὰ τὸ Γ, ὥστε τὰς ΑΓ, ΓΒ μέσας εἶναι δυνάμει μόνον συμμέτρους ῥητὸν περιεχούσας: λέγω, ὅτι ἡ ΑΒ κατ' ἄλλο σημεῖον οὐ διαιρεῖται. Εἰ γὰρ δυνατόν, διῃρήσθω καὶ κατὰ τὸ Δ, ὥστε καὶ τὰς ΑΔ, ΔΒ μέσας εἶναι δυνάμει μόνον συμμέτρους ῥητὸν περιεχούσας. ἐπεὶ οὖν, ᾧ διαφέρει τὸ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ, ΔΒ τοῦ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΓ, ΓΒ, τούτῳ διαφέρει τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ, ΓΒ τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΔ, ΔΒ, ῥητῷ δὲ διαφέρει τὸ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ, ΔΒ τοῦ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΓ, ΓΒ: ῥητὰ γὰρ ἀμφότερα: ῥητῷ ἄρα διαφέρει καὶ τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΓ, ΓΒ τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΔ, ΔΒ μέσα ὄντα: ὅπερ ἄτοπον. Οὐκ ἄρα ἡ ἐκ δύο μέσων πρώτη κατ' ἄλλο καὶ ἄλλο σημεῖον διαιρεῖται εἰς τὰ ὀνόματα: καθ' ἓν ἄρα μόνον: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.

A first bimedial straight line is divided at one point only. Let AB be a first bimedial straight line divided at C, so that AC, CB are medial straight lines commensurable in square only and containing a rational rectangle; I say that AB is not so divided at another point. For, if possible, let it be divided at D also, so that AD, DB are also medial straight lines commensurable in square only and containing a rational rectangle. Since, then, that by which twice the rectangle AD, DB differs from twice the rectangle AC, CB is that by which the squares on AC, CB differ from the squares on AD, DB, while twice the rectangle AD, DB differs from twice the rectangle AC, CB by a rational area—for both are rational— therefore the squares on AC, CB also differ from the squares on AD, DB by a rational area, though they are medial: which is absurd. [X. 26]